More than 20 percent of the population of two major cities, Los Angeles and New York, were born in another country. In some other major cities including San Francisco and Chicago more than one of every ten residents is foreign born.
Four main passes Grimsel, Furka, St. Gotthard, and Oberalp allow passage from Northern Europe across the Alps to Italy, making Switzerland a country of transit. The country covers 15, square miles and borders Germany to the north, France to the west, Italy to the south, and Austria and the Principality of Liechtenstein to the east.
The Swiss nation is a confederation of 26 member states called cantons, and the nation's capital is Bern, a city that began about and was officially founded in The national flag consists of a square red field with a white equilateral cross at its center.
In Switzerland counted 6. The country is ethnically diverse, indicated by its four language groups.
Religiously the Swiss people are nearly evenly divided between Catholics and Swiss Reformed, but there are also small groups of other Christian denominations and other faiths. The so-called Bundesbrief of documents their alliance. In it the three regions pledge mutual support to keep internal order and to resist aggression.
By13 cantons had united the rural population with the urban elite of artisans and entrepreneurs. Both groups were intent on gaining and preserving independence from the nobility, a unique development in European history.
The Confederation's defeat at the battle of Marignano in upper Italy in ended the nation's expansion. This loss led to the gradual emergence of armed neutrality, a basic feature of Switzerland's political tradition. However, the Reformation split the people into Catholic and Swiss Reformed hostile camps and nearly destroyed the Confederation.
Inafter five decades of foreign intervention and internal uncertainty, a new constitution was adopted. The previous system of autonomous states became one federal state, though the people remain the actual sovereign.
The Swiss are called upon to vote on numerous issues several times a year. This process occurs either by constitutional requirement or more often by initiative and referendum which, given a sufficient number of signatories, force the government to submit issues to the popular vote.
The executive branch, called Bundesrat, consists of seven members chosen by Parliament and acts as a unit. The presidency is an honorary position and rotates annually.
In addition, the cantons and over 3, communes Gemeinden have preserved their autonomy and decide numerous issues by popular vote. The Swiss are involved in political decision-making throughout the year on the local, cantonal, and federal level.
Neutrality in foreign affairs and universal military service of men are considered central to the Swiss political tradition, which may have kept the country out of two devastating world wars.
Switzerland's economy, however, is fully dependent on the export of quality products and on special expertise in finance as well as the production of machinery, pharmaceuticals, watches, and precision instruments. In he was a leading member of a French attempt to create a permanent foothold in North America.
He perished when some French soldiers were shipwrecked by a hurricane in Septemberand killed by the Spanish. Some "Switzers" also lived at Jamestown during the regime of Captain Smith. Between andsome 25, Swiss are estimated to have settled in British North America, especially in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina.
Many were members of the Reformed church and were actively recruited by entrepreneurs such as Jean Pierre Purrythe founder of Purrysburg, South Carolina.
About 4, Swiss Mennonites settled in Pennsylvania, many of whom had first gone to the Palatinate from which the next generation emigrated in search of fertile, affordable land and greater toleration of their creed. In the late s an influential group of French Swiss officers in the British service assumed leadership roles in the fight against indigenous peoples resisting white incursions into the trans-Appalachian West, the French, and the insurgent colonials.
In the middle decades of the eighteenth century a group of Swiss Jesuits labored in the Southwest of the present United States to promote the northward expansion of New Spain.HISTORY The Swiss Confederation emerged in the late thirteenth century from an alliance of three regions: the modern-day cantons Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden.
Does historical responsibility exist?
Levinas speaks about a structural or ontological responsibility. Man, he says, is not born a moral subject but becomes a human subject thanks to the other, as he becomes responsible for the other. The human need to communicate. Humans have an innate need for communication, for communication’s sake, among other needs that don’t improve their survival or reproduction.
Thus at Venice the College, even in the absence of the Doge, is called "Most Serene Prince." The Palatine of Posen, father of the King of Poland, Duke of Lorraine. People live in the present.
They plan for and worry about the future. History, however, is the study of the past. Given all the demands that press in from living in the present and anticipating what is yet to come, why bother with what has been? Given all the desirable and available branches of. The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).
It does not say that the value of a commodity is determined by the actual amount of labor.