The history and industrial applications of superconductors

Not only have the limits of superconductivity not yet been reached, but the theories that explain superconductor behavior seem to be constantly under review. In superconductivity was first observed in mercury by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes of Leiden University shown above. When he cooled it to the temperature of liquid helium, 4 degrees Kelvin F, Cits resistance suddenly disappeared. The Kelvin scale represents an "absolute" scale of temperature.

The history and industrial applications of superconductors

Transport vehicles such as trains can be made to "float" on strong superconducting magnets, virtually eliminating friction between the train and its tracks. Not only would conventional electromagnets waste much of the electrical energy as heat, they would have to be physically much larger than superconducting magnets.

A landmark for the commercial use of MAGLEV technology occurred in when it gained the status of a nationally-funded project in Japan. In Aprilthe MLX01 test vehicle shown above attained an incredible speed of mph kph. Although the technology has now been proven, the wider use of MAGLEV vehicles has been constrained by political and environmental concerns strong magnetic fields can create a bio-hazard.

Brief History | Superconductivity | Applications

MRI of a human skull. An area where superconductors can perform a life-saving function is in the field of biomagnetism. They then release this energy at a frequency that can be detected and displayed graphically by a computer.

But, the first MRI exam on a human being was not performed until July 3, And, it took almost five hours to produce one image! A tutorial is available on MRI at this link. Or read the latest MRI news at this link.

Probably the one event, more than any other, that has been responsible for putting "superconductors" into the American lexicon was the Superconducting Super-Collider project planned for construction in Ellis county, Texas.

Though Congress cancelled the multi-billion dollar effort inthe concept of such a large, high-energy collider would never have been viable without superconductors. High-energy particle research hinges on being able to accelerate sub-atomic particles to nearly the speed of light.

Superconductor magnets make this possible. Other related web sites worth visiting include the proton-antiproton collider page at Fermilab.

The history and industrial applications of superconductors

This was the first facility to use superconducting magnets. Electric generators made with superconducting wire are far more efficient than conventional generators wound with copper wire.

These facts make them very lucrative ventures for power utilities. Department of Energy to move high-temperature superconducting generator technology toward full commercialization.

To read the latest news on superconducting generators click Here.

Properties, History, and Challenges

Other commercial power projects in the works that employ superconductor technology include energy storage to enhance power stability. Just one of these 6 D-SMES units has a power reserve of over 3 million watts, which can be retrieved whenever there is a need to stabilize line voltage during a disturbance in the power grid.

Recently, power utilities have also begun to use superconductor-based transformers and "fault limiters". The Swiss-Swedish company ABB was the first to connect a superconducting transformer to a utility power network in March of ABB also recently announced the development of a 6. This new generation of HTS superconducting fault limiters is being called upon due to their ability to respond in just thousandths of a second to limit tens of thousands of amperes of current.

Intermagnetics General recently completed tests on its largest 15kv class power-utility-size fault limiter at a Southern California Edison SCE substation near Norwalk, California. And, both the US and Japan have plans to replace underground copper power cables with superconducting BSCCO cable-in-conduit cooled with liquid nitrogen.

By doing this, more current can be routed through existing cable tunnels. An idealized application for superconductors is to employ them in the transmission of commercial power to cities. However, due to the high cost and impracticality of cooling miles of superconducting wire to cryogenic temperatures, this has only happened with short "test runs".

In May of someresidents of Copenhagen, Denmark, began receiving their electricity through HTS high-temperature superconducting material.

That cable was only 30 meters long, but proved adequate for testing purposes.High-Temperature Superconducting Synchronous Motors: Economic Issues for Industrial Applications temperature superconductors in high-horsepower electric motors is described, and the potential.

In the Applied Superconductivity Conference celebrated the 75 th Anniversary of the discovery of superconductivity with a symposium on the history of superconductivity.

The symposium is published in full in IEEE Trans. Magn., 23, pp. , History of Superconductors. In superconductivity was first observed in mercury by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes of Leiden University.

subsequent refinements in the way MgB2 is fabricated have paved the way for its use in industrial applications. Applications in industrial processing 22 Superconductivity: Properties, History, Applications and.

Challenges. Superconductors differ fundamentally in quantum physics behavior. from conventional materials in the manner by which electrons, or electric currents, move through the material.

It is . Applications in industrial processing 22 Superconductivity: Properties, History, Applications and. Challenges. Superconductors differ fundamentally in quantum physics behavior.

from conventional materials in the manner by which electrons, or electric currents, move through the material. It is these differences. History of Superconductors. In superconductivity was first observed in mercury by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes of Leiden University.

subsequent refinements in the way MgB2 is fabricated have paved the way for its use in industrial applications.

Superconductor Uses