Abstract In recent years, the cloning technology has remarkably developed in Iran, but unfortunately, the required legal framework has not been created to support and protect such developments yet. This legal gap may lead to abuse of scientific researches to obtain illegal benefits and to undermine the intellectual property rights of scientists and researchers.
Ethical issues raised by abortion and euthanasia are part of the subject matter of bioethics, which deals with the ethical dimensions of new developments in medicine and the biological sciences. Inherently interdisciplinary in scope, the field benefits from the contributions of professionals outside philosophy,… Definition and development The range of issues considered to fall within the purview of bioethics varies depending on how broadly the field is defined.
In one common usage, bioethics is more or less equivalent to medical ethics, or biomedical ethics. The term medical ethics itself has been challenged, however, in light of the growing interest in issues dealing with health care professions other than medicine, in particular nursing.
The professionalization of nursing and the perception of nurses as ethically accountable in their own right have led to the development of a distinct field known as nursing ethics.
Accordingly, health care ethics has come into use as a more inclusive term. Bioethics, however, is broader than this, because some of the issues it encompasses concern not so much the practice of health care as the conduct and results of research in the life sciences, especially in areas such as cloning and gene therapy see clone and genetic engineeringstem cell research, xenotransplantation animal-to-human transplantationand human longevity.
Although bioethics—and indeed the whole field of applied ethics as currently understood—is a fairly recent phenomenon, there have been discussions of moral issues in medicine since ancient times.
Bioethics emerged as a distinct field of study in the early s. It was influenced not only by advances in the life sciences, particularly medicine, but also by the significant cultural and societal changes taking place at the time, primarily in the West.
The perfection of certain lifesaving procedures and technologies, such as organ transplantation and kidney dialysisrequired medical officials to make difficult decisions about which patients would receive treatment and which would be allowed to die.
At the same time, the increasing importance placed on individual well-being contributed to changes in conventional attitudes toward marriage and sexuality, reproduction and child rearing, and civil rights. Issues in bioethics The health care context The issues studied in bioethics can be grouped into several categories.
If a patient with a life-threatening illness refuses treatmentshould his wishes be respected? Should patients always be permitted to refuse the use of extraordinary life-support measures?
These questions become more complicated when the patient is incapable of making rational decisions in his own interest, as in the case of infants and children, patients suffering from disabling psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer diseaseand patients who are in a vegetative state see coma.
Traditional philosophical questions Another category of issues concerns a host of philosophical questions about the definition and significance of life and deaththe nature of personhood and identity, and the extent of human freedom and individual responsibility.
At what point should a fatally injured or terminally ill patient be considered dead? When his vital functions—e. When the brain stem has ceased to function? Should the presence of deep coma be sufficient to establish death?
These and similar questions were given new urgency in the s, when the increased demand for human organs and tissues for use in transplant operations forced medical ethicists to establish guidelines for determining when it is permissible to remove organs from a potential donor. At about the same time, the development of safer techniques of surgical abortion and the growing acceptability of abortion as a method of birth control prompted increasing debate about the moral status of the human fetus.
The central issue was whether—and, if so, at what stage—the fetus is a person in the moral sense. In slightly different terms, the issue was whether the class of persons is coextensive with the class of human beings—whether all and only human beings are persons, or whether instead there can be human beings who are not persons or persons who are not human beings the latter category, according to some, includes some of the higher animals and hypothetical creatures such as intelligent Martians.
These questions were raised anew in later decades in response to the development of drugs, such as RU mifepristonethat induce abortion up to several weeks after conception and to the use of stem cells taken from human embryo s in research on the treatment of conditions such as parkinsonism Parkinson disease and injuries of the central nervous system.
A closely related set of issues concerns the nature of personal identity. Recent advances in techniques of cloningwhich enabled the successful cloning of animals such as sheep and rabbits, have renewed discussion of the traditional philosophical question of what, if anything, makes a particular human being the unique person he is.
Is a person just the sum of the information encoded in his genes? If so, is the patient who has undergone gene therapy a different person from the one he was before—i.
The term "human cloning" is used in this chapter to refer to all human cloning: cloning-to-produce-children and cloning-for-biomedical-research. When only one particular use of human cloning is intended, we use the more specific term. De-extinction, or resurrection biology, or species revivalism is the process of creating an organism, which is either a member of, or resembles an extinct species, or breeding population of such organisms. Cloning is the most widely proposed method, although selective breeding has also been proposed. Similar techniques have been applied to . Chapter 8 Cloning. The moral issues posed by human cloning are profound and have implications for today and for future generations. Today's overwhelming and bipartisan House action to prohibit human cloning is a strong ethical statement, which I commend.
Would he and his parent be the same person? If multiple human beings were cloned from the same parent, would they and their parent all be the same person?
Dolly the sheep, the first clone of an adult mammal, at the Roslin Institute, near Edinburgh. To what extent, if any, is human personality or character genetically rather than environmentally determined? Are there genetic bases for certain types of behaviour, as there seem to be for certain types of diseases e.
If so, what kinds of behaviour are so influenced, and to what extent are they also influenced by environmental factors? If behaviour is at least partly genetically determined, should individuals always be held fully responsible for what they do?The Benefits of Responsible Human Cloning On an unremarkable afternoon in July of , in an unremarkable shed in Scotland, a lamb was born.
This lamb was to spark a controversy that would be one of the defining arguments of this era. HUMAN CLONING. Reproductive Cloning.
Reproductive cloning is the process where the asexual cells are transferred to an egg while its DNA has been removed and after the development of an embryo, it is placed into the recipient uterus. All information posted on this web site is the opinion of the author and is provided for educational purposes only.
It is not to be construed as medical advice. Benefits of Cloning - Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through the use of a DNA sample.
After the first cloned sheep dolly was created, many people were keen in knowing more about cloning and its benefit to society.
Latest environmental news, features and updates. Pictures, video and more. RATIONALE This is a preliminary look into the biology, technology, ethics and conscious thought involved in human cloning and genetic engineering coupled with a brief exploration of governmental policy designed to regulate its research and practice.