Precontact[ edit ] Etowah Mound C, was a part of a precontact Mississippian and ancestral Muscogee site occupied by ancestors of the Muscogee people from c. The Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to urban centers and regional chiefdoms. Stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, and flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from to AD.
See Article History Alternative Titles: Seminole Freedmen, Seminole Maroons Black Seminoles, also called Seminole Maroons or Seminole Freedmen, a group of free blacks and runaway slaves maroons that joined forces with the Seminole Indians in Florida from approximately through the s.
The Black Seminoles were celebrated for their bravery and tenacity during the three Seminole Wars. The Native American Seminoles living in Florida were not one tribe but many.
They spoke a variety of Muskogean languages and had formed an alliance to prevent European settlers from expanding into their homelands.
Throughout the 18th century, many free blacks and runaway slaves went to Florida and lived in harmony with the Seminoles. Their proximity to and resulting collaboration with the Seminoles led students of the group to refer to them as Black Indians, Black Seminoles, and eventually—especially among scholars—Seminole Maroons, or Seminole Freedmen.
Most Black Seminoles lived separately from the Indians in their own villages, although the two groups intermarried to some extent, and some Black Seminoles adopted Indian customs.
Both groups wore similar dress, ate similar foods, and lived in similar houses. Both groups worked the land communally and shared the harvest. The Black Seminoles, however, practiced a religion that was a blend of African and Christian rituals, to which traditional Seminole Indian dances were added, and their language was an English Creole similar to Gullah and sometimes called Afro-Seminole Creole.
Some of their leaders who were fluent speakers of Creek were readily admitted to Seminole society, but most remained separate. It had nothing to do with ownership or free labour. The Black Seminoles were relatively prosperous and content. They farmed, hunted wild game, and amassed significant wealth.
Many black men joined the Seminole Indians as warriors when their land or freedom was threatened.
Others served as translators, helping the Seminoles understand not only the language but also the culture of Euro-Americans. That cooperation endured only through the Seminole Wars of the first half of the 19th century. Euro-American settlers wanted the rich land occupied by the Seminoles, and Southern slaveholders were unnerved by free blacks who were armed and ready to fight and living just over the border from slave states.
Between andU. The Black Seminoles were recognized for their aggressive military prowess during the First Seminole War — That conflict began when General Andrew Jackson and U.Introductory Information.
The Yavapai-Apache Nation is located in the Upper Verde Valley of central Arizona off of I, 90 miles north of Phoenix and 50 miles south of Flagstaff.. The modern Nation is the amalgamation of two historically distinct Tribes both of whom occupied the Upper Verde prior to European invasion.
Cherokee Indians, Cherokee Tribe. A powerful detached tribe of the Iroquoian family, formerly holding the whole mountain region of the south Alleghenies. Geoff Mangum's Guide to Native American History & Culture.
Prehistory, Contact to the End of the Indian Wars, and Modern Days. This webpage features North America before the Europeans, and during the ensuing four centuries () of European dispossession of the native populations by violence and deceit, euphemistically termed "the clash of cultures", and with modern information on tribes.
Cherokee Research: The Cherokee Indians have had continuing dealings with the U.S. Government since the ’s through treaties, legislation, and the courts. "The Cherokee are probably the most tragic instance of what could have succeeded in American Indian policy and didn't. All these things that Americans would proudly see as the hallmarks of civilization are going to the West by Indian people.
Cherokee Women: Gender and Culture Change, (Indians of the Southeast) [Theda Perdue] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Theda Perdue examines the roles and responsibilities of Cherokee women during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.