Define a formation reaction and be able to recognize one. Use enthalpies of formation to determine the enthalpy of reaction.
See Article History Hydrogen chloride, HCla compound of the elements hydrogen and chlorinea gas at room temperature and pressure. A solution of the gas in water is called hydrochloric acid. Hydrogen chloride is commonly prepared both on a laboratory and on an industrial scale by the reaction of a chloride, generally that of sodium NaClwith sulfuric acid H2SO4.
It is also produced by the reaction of some chlorides e. Hydrochloric acid is prepared by dissolving gaseous hydrogen chloride in water. Because of the corrosive nature of the acid, ceramic, glass, or sometimes tantalum apparatus is commonly used. Hydrochloric acid is usually marketed as a solution containing 28—35 percent by weight hydrogen chloride, commonly known as concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Anhydrous liquid hydrogen chloride is available, but because heavy and expensive containers are required to store it, the use of hydrogen chloride in this form is limited. The gas is very soluble in water: Because of its great solubilitythe gas fumes in moist air.
A water solution containing Thus, hydrochloric acid is a strong acid. Gaseous hydrogen chloride reacts with active metals and their oxides, hydroxides, and carbonates to produce chlorides.
These reactions occur readily only in the presence of moisture. Completely dry hydrogen chloride is very unreactive. The reactions of hydrochloric acid are those of typical strong acids, such as: Hydrochloric acid also enters into chemical reactions characteristic of the chloride ion, such as reactions with various inorganic and organic compounds in which hydrochloric acid is used as a chlorinating agent and reactions with metals and their oxides in which complex chloride-containing ions are formed e.
The latter type of reaction accounts for the ease of solution of certain metals and metallic compounds in hydrochloric acid although they are slowly dissolved in other acids of equal strength e.
For this reason hydrochloric acid is used extensively in the industrial processing of metals and in the concentration of some ores.
Hydrochloric acid is present in the digestive juices of the human stomach. Excessive secretion of the acid causes gastric ulcers; a marked deficiency of it impairs the digestive process and is sometimes the primary cause of deficiency anemias.
Concentrated hydrochloric acid causes burns and inflammation of the skin. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Product and Process Design Principles - Seider - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.
Nov 07, · For the best answers, search on this site regardbouddhiste.com HCL is formed from Hydrogen and Chlorine (obviously). The standard state of Hydrogen is H2(g) and the standard state of Chlorine is Cl2(g), so these are the regardbouddhiste.com: Resolved.
Writing a standard formation reaction The standard formation reaction of a chemical compound has 1 mole of the compound as its only product, and for reactants has only elements in their standard states To write the eqn of a standard formation reaction.
HCl can exists in two forms.
It is either in aqueous or in gaseous form. It can be formed from Hydrogen and chlorine ions or gasses. Hydrogen Chloride aqueous delta H f = Hydrogen Chloride. Chemical equilibrium. When a chemical reaction takes place in a container which prevents the entry or escape of any of the substances involved in the reaction, the quantities of these components change as some are consumed and others are formed.
Write the balanced reaction for the incomplete combustion of pentane, assuming the formation of carbon monoxide and water as the products.
Enter the coefficient .