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With the extraordinary growth of the academic discipline of history in the 19th century, the history of the Middle Ages was absorbed into academic curricula of history in Europe and the United States and established in university survey courses and Historical figure research napoleon bonaparte essay seminars.
Journals of… History of historiography All human cultures tell stories about the past.
Deeds of ancestors, heroes, gods, or animals sacred to particular peoples were chanted and memorized long before there was any writing with which to record them. Their truth was authenticated by the very fact of their continued repetition.
History, which may be defined as an account that purports to be true of events and ways of thinking and feeling in some part of the human past, stems from this archetypal human narrative activity.
While sharing a common ancestry with mythlegendepic poetryand the novelhistory has of course diverged from these forms. Its claim to truth is based in part on the fact that all the persons or events it describes really existed or occurred at some time in the past.
Historians can say nothing about these persons or events that cannot be supported, or at least suggested, by some kind of documentary evidence. Such evidence customarily takes the form of something written, such as a letter, a law, an administrative record, or the account of some previous historian.
In addition, historians sometimes create their own evidence by interviewing people. In the 20th century the scope of historical evidence was greatly expanded to include, among many other things, aerial photographs, the rings of trees, old coins, clothes, motion pictures, and houses.
Modern historians have determined the age of the Shroud of Turinwhich purportedly bears the image of Jesusthrough carbon dating and have discredited the claim of Anna Anderson to be the grand duchess Anastasiathe daughter of Tsar Nicholas IIthrough DNA testing Just as the methods at the disposal of historians have expanded, so have the subjects in they have become interested.
Many of the indigenous peoples of Africa, the Americas, and Polynesia, for example, were long dismissed by Europeans as having no precolonial history, because they did not keep written records before the arrival of European explorers.
However, sophisticated study of oral traditions, combined with advances in archaeologyhas made it possible to discover a good deal about the civilizations and empires that flourished in these regions before European contact.
Historians have also studied new social classes. The earliest histories were mostly stories of disasters—floods, famines, and plagues—or of wars, including the statesmen and generals who figured in them. In the 20th century, however, historians shifted their focus from statesmen and generals to ordinary workers and soldiers.
Until relatively recent times, however, most men and virtually all women were excluded from history because they were unable to write. Virtually all that was known about them passed through the filter of the attitudes of literate elites. The challenge of seeing through that filter has been met by historians in various ways.
One way is to make use of nontraditional sources—for example, personal documents, such as wills or marriage contracts.
Another is to look at the records of localities rather than of central governments. Through these means even the most oppressed peoples—African-American slaves or medieval hereticsfor example—have had at least some of their history restored.
Since the 20th century some historians have also become interested in psychological repression—i. For the first time, the claim of historians to deal with the feelings as well as the thoughts of people in any part of the human past has been made good.Oct 02, · Read by John Lee.
~33hours Description: Austerlitz, Borodino, Waterloo: his battles are among the greatest in history, but Napoleon Bonaparte was far more than a military genius and astute leader of regardbouddhiste.com George Washington and his own hero Julius Caesar, he was one of the greatest soldier-statesmen of all times.
- Historical Figure Research Paper Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon was a very influential individual throughout his time. The achievements he made still reflect in the world today, especially in France. He was a military general and emperor who conquered the majority of Europe in the 19th Century.
AWARDED THE PRIX DU JURY DES GRANDS PRIX DE LA FONDATION NAPOLÉON From Andrew Roberts, author of the Sunday Times bestseller The Storm of War, this is the definitive modern biography of Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte lived one of the most extraordinary of all human lives. Nov 04, · History Essay Napoleon Very few leaders have had both the luck and the influence of Napoleon Bonaparte He came to power, mainly, because of the chaos of the French Revolution, and because he was able to manipulate the right people.
The fascinating tale of Kubrick’s unfilmed masterpiece Now available in an unlimited, single-volume edition! For 40 years, Kubrick fans and film buffs have wondered about the director's mysterious unmade film on Napoleon Bonaparte. Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (/ l ə ˈ p l ɑː s /; French: [pjɛʁ simɔ̃ laplas]; 23 March – 5 March ) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of engineering, mathematics, statistics, physics and regardbouddhiste.com summarized and extended the work of his predecessors in his five-volume Mécanique Céleste (Celestial Mechanics) (–).