Reaffirmed Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed.
Published online Jan BoxJerusalem,Israel; E-Mail: Received Dec 16; Accepted Jan This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care.
The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.
Introduction Several drugs and chemicals are known to be teratogenic to the human embryo when administered during pregnancy, especially during the period of organogenesis.
The evidence for their teratogenicity has been shown by human epidemiologic and clinical studies, as well as in studies carried out in animals such as rats, mice, rabbits and primates.
These teratogenic insults occurring during embryonic life may be present immediately after birth, at infancy or even later in life, especially if the damage involves the Central Nervous System CNS [ 1 ]. Moreover, many of the insults to the CNS may occur in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, when most other organs have already passed the stage of active organogenesis.
Briefly, the main stages of the human CNS development are the formation of the neural folds, their closure to form the neural tube that closes completely towards the end of the fourth week post fertilization, the formation of the main brain vesicles during weeks 5 and 6 and the tissue surrounding the central canal that develops to the different brain vesicles.
However, the cortical plate starts to develop mainly during weeks 8—9 post fertilization, and the cerebellar cortex is developing later, mainly during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
The cerebral cortex continues to develop actively throughout gestation and even in the early postnatal life, mainly by forming the different cortical layers, neuronal growth and sprouting, synapse formation and myelinization.
It is therefore expected that psychotropic agents such as ethanol are able to affect the development of the CNS almost throughout the entire pregnancy [ 12 ].
Hence, such late effect will not necessarily be manifested by morphological changes in the CNS but rather by more subtle changes in the intellectual capacity, learning ability, attention span and behavior. In this review we will discuss the possible effects of ethanol use during pregnancy on the human embryo and fetus.
We will survey studies concerning ethanol-abusing women either throughout pregnancy or following sporadic use. We will also discuss some animal studies especially those related to the mechanisms of action of ethanol.
Unlike most drugs that impact the CNS or other organs, ethanol may affect both the mother and embryo, inducing mainly, but not exclusively, behavioral problems and intellectual deficits.
History of Alcohol Effects in Pregnancy The history of maternal alcoholism and its effect on development of the offspring goes back to the Bible and to the early Greek mythology. The teratogenic effects of ethanol on human fetuses were first reported by Lemoine et al.
Alcohol was used at the time to prevent premature labor.During pregnancy, substance abuse can harm your baby.
Learn about why to stay away from smoking, drinking, and illegal drugs, and how to get help. your child could be born with lifelong fetal alcohol syndrome disorders (FASD).
Children with FASD can have a mix of physical, behavioral, and learning problems. Find health information in. As of September 1, , fifteen states consider substance abuse during pregnancy to be child abuse under civil child-welfare statutes, and three consider it grounds for involuntary commitment to a mental health or substance abuse treatment facility (1).
The issue of substance abuse during pregnancy has been debated among policymakers since the late s. Johnson v. State 18 was the first successful prosecution of a pregnant woman in the United States for prenatal damage to a fetus.
Drug Use and Pregnancy. In this Article refer to a range of disorders caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Fetal alcohol syndrome can cause abnormal "Pregnancy and Substance Abuse.".
Although no single approach can accurately determine the presence or amount of drug used during pregnancy, Alcohol remains the most widely studied prenatal drug of abuse, and the evidence is strong for fetal growth problems, congenital anomalies, and abnormal infant neurobehavior.
There has been no convincing evidence of a neonatal. Punishing Women for Their Behavior During Pregnancy An Approach That Undermines Women’s Health and finding themselves prosecuted for such non-existent crimes as “fetal” abuse and delivery of drugs through the umbilical cord.
In addition, pregnant women are being civil- Punishing Women for Their Behavior During Pregnancy 2.