At different phases of price fluctuations, different groups become more vocal andmore concerned about price movements rising prices affect consumers and importing nations, whereas falling prices are of vital interest to producers and exporting countries. If price stability in the world market is desired, trade liberalization, not greater restriction, is more likely to provide it. The frame work use in research is partial equilibrium or gravity model.
What makes innovation in Japan so distinctive in comparison to other Asia-Pacific economies? Introduction It is commonly believed that the leading role in East Asian economy which has played by Japan since s is largely attributed to its in-depth and wide-ranging innovation system.
Its original production system, innovative product development, restless improvement philosophy, orchestrated internal management approaches and strong inter-firm relations continue to characterize the distinctiveness of Japanese innovation system and set the benchmark of innovation for other East Asian states.
This essay will first give an overview of the development process of Japanese innovation system from Meji Restoration to the s. Two distinctive features of Japanese innovation system can be identified from this process: Then the emerging pattern of Japanese innovation system which features a triple-helix network between government, universities and industries will be analysed.
With the reference to the surging life science industry in Japan, this concept will be further illustrated. The essay will be concluded by comparing innovation system in China to Japan. Some distinctive features of Japanese innovation system will be addressed again. The Development of Japanese Innovation System When Japan opened its door to the world in the Meiji Restoration after more than two hundred years of isolation, it realized its large distance with Western countries in terms of science and technology.
At that time, the Japanese government emphasized pragmatic education in the universities and expect universities to spread their knowledge to industry.
Many graduates from those universities later became the founder of Japanese major manufacturing companies. Moreover, the establishment of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science JSPS was approved by Japanese Diet in to further promote the development of science and technology, and in order to strength the linkage of innovation between universities and industry, a University-Industry Cooperative Research Committee was launched the next year Edgington,P4.
However, during the World War II, the Japanese economy was devastatingly destroyed and the innovation activities were also seriously affected. Under this system, some distinctive features emerged in Japan by the end of s.
One was featured by large companies which had gradually developed into strong competitors in technology-intensive products had also taken a major role in the national innovation system. During s and s, large manufacturing companies adopted the strategy of imitating technologies and processes from Western countries and adding incremental improvement to them to increase their international competitiveness.
Unlike the Silicon Valley model which characterized by a large size of start-ups and dynamic interaction between researchers and firms, although Japan has the highest proportion of small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs and employment among all the major industrialized countries, they were hardly provided preferential policies to support their innovation Edgingto,P.
Accordingly, the large companies see little need to seek for collaboration with universities in term of product innovation. Another feature during this time was the over-concentration of industrial production in the Kanto centred on Tokyo and the surrounding Keihin industrial districtChubu concentrate on Nagoya and Aichi prefecture and Kansai Osaka, Kyoto and Kobe as its centre region which led to the growing disparity among regional economies.
The benefits of closeness to the national government, the easier access to information and technology, and the concentration of promising research personnel in Tokyo and other large cities continue to attract industries when locating their new companies. MITI designated 26sites for high-technology production decentralized throughout Japan based on new legislation.
In each case, local government were asked to build up their strengths and mobilize local resources as far as possible to attract new industries and develop high-technology manufacturing complexes.
Most of these were based around local universities or research institutes. Edgington,P6 Under this situation, the linkage between university and industry was again tightened in response to government strategy which linked the technology development together with the policy goals aiming at promoting regional economy.
During the s, the appreciation of yen to dollar greatly damaged the exports of Japanese large manufacturers and at the same time the domestic demands also shrank sharply. Meanwhile, the manufacturers of other East Asian state such as South Korea, Taiwan and China gradually became more competitive in the global market.
Even though their product may be considered inferior to Japanese products initially, the open technology environment and gaining experience from the surging domestic market enabled then to improve quality of their products rapidly.
This drastically challenged the advantage of Japanese manufacturers in global market share. This caused the significant decline of the profit in hitherto competitive industries such as electronic and automobile manufacturing.According to this stream of scholarship, public sector employees frequently view public service as a calling, and often experience a high degree of enjoyment, satisfaction, and fulfillment from working in the public sector and helping others (Frederickson ; Perry and Wise ; Houston ).
Since the time of Patriarch Meletius IV Metaxakis (d. ) however, the ecumenical patriarchate has formulated a more robust view of its place in Orthodoxy. These new ideas, together with the high-handed antics and startling reforms of Meletius set alarm bells off throughout Orthodoxy.
While the focus on welfare reforms undertaken since rests with the Labour government’s policy toward the NHS, the essay establishes that there is a great deal of evidence to support the view that Labour have acted out of pragmatic considerations.
He graduated in , a short time before he was nineteen; dividing the first honor with a young man by the name of Mitchell, from Maryland. William H.
McGuffey (Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Virginia) would have taken the same honor without any . The Taika Reforms of were a political movement to restore power to the Imperial family from a powerful clan.
The Taika reforms attempted to centralize much of Japan according to Chinese Tang Dynasty bureaucratic models and philosophical values.
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There is the "Code of Ethics for Public Officers" issued by the Ministry of Civil Service and Administrative Reforms.