We all have biases, even prejudices, toward specific groups.
Emphasis on reciprocation of gifts, favors, and greetings; Negative association with economic growth. Restraint The dimension of indulgence vs. A society that practices indulgence makes room for the comparatively free gratification of natural and basic human drives pertaining to indulging in fun and enjoying life.
The quality of restraint describes a society that holds back need gratification and tries to control it through stringent social norms. Arab, African, Asian and Latin countries have a higher score with regards to power distance index while Germanic and Anglo countries possess a lower score.
For instance, Guatemala has a score of 95 while Israel scores 13 with a very low power distance, whereas the United States stands somewhere in between with a score of So far as the individualism index is concerned, a substantial gap exists between Eastern and less developed countries on one hand and Western and developed countries on the other.
While Europe and North America are highly individualistic, Latin America, Africa, and Asia score very low on the individualism index with strong collectivist values. Highest uncertainty avoidance scores are possessed by Latin American countries, Japan as well as Eastern and Southern Europe.
The score is lower for Chinese, Nordic, and Anglo culture countries. For instance, Germany has a higher uncertainty avoidance index with a score of 65, compared to Sweden, which scores only Nordic countries exhibit low masculinity, with Sweden and Norway scoring 5 and 8 respectively.
Again, Anglo countries, Japan, and European countries such as Switzerland, Austria and Hungary have high masculinity scores.
However, often there is a failure to manage the project effectively due to existing cultural differences between local communities and foreign engineers.
This case study of one such project in Eastern Ghanasupervised by a British engineer and project manager, explores some of the critical issues that can arise in a cross-cultural project. The engineer expected the community to express their opinions regarding the sanitation and water project, including the procedure of the project, the design or any other facet that the community wanted to discuss.
It was also noticed during the project that if individuals ever voiced their opinions, they preferred not to express opinions that conflicted with what others had expressed. For instance, on a particular occasion, the engineer asked the opinions of two women in a family. After the first shared her opinion, the second woman, who was younger, was asked to share hers, but she refused to do so.
Instead, she said that her mother the other womanhad already spoken.
In another case, the engineer approached a woman, who had some problems in walking, for her opinion. In the village, she happened to be the only lady with this problem, so her opinion was sought in order to customize the design for water collection and sanitation systems accordingly.
However, this lady was reluctant to voice any opinion regarding this, as she felt that her own well-being was not so much significant considering the entire group.
However, when the other women of the community were asked, one suggested a flat design so that the lady with the walking problem could collect her water easily.
At the start of the project, the engineer could more or less comfortably organize the work schedule and ensure good progress. Many members of the community lent helping hands.Find U.S. Department of State programs for U.S. and non-U.S. citizens wishing to participate in cultural, educational, or professional exchanges.
One key difference between cohort and case-control study is that the cohort study is prospective while the case-control study is retrospective. Through this article let us further examine the differences between a cohort study and a case-control study. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more.
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Cultural Differences. Learning profiles of 20 countries are provided in the mini-course. Harnessing Cultural Intelligence Societal, Institutional, and Value Differences between Chinese and Americans.
Six Fundamental Patterns of Cultural Differences. In a world as complex as ours, each of us is shaped by many factors, and culture is one of the powerful forces that acts on us. Dec 09, · Managing cultural conflict in your organization helps create a more harmonious workplace.
It also ensures that you reap the creative benefits of multiculturalism.