There are substantial methodological differences between these approaches. Case selection and structure[ edit ] An average, or typical case, is often not the richest in information. In clarifying lines of history and causation it is more useful to select subjects that offer an interesting, unusual or particularly revealing set of circumstances. A case selection that is based on representativeness will seldom be able to produce these kinds of insights.
Case Studies What are case studies? Case studies are stories. They present realistic, complex, and contextually rich situations and often involve a dilemma, conflict, or problem that one or more of the characters in the case must negotiate.
A good case study, according to Professor Paul Lawrence is: A good case keeps the class discussion grounded upon some of the stubborn facts that must be faced in real life situations.
As an instructional strategy, case studies have a number of virtues. They also give students practice identifying the parameters of a problem, recognizing and articulating positions, evaluating courses of action, and arguing different points of view.
They can be short a few paragraphs or long e. They can be used in lecture-based or discussion-based classes. They can be real, with all the detail drawn from actual people and circumstances, or simply realistic.
They can provide all the relevant data students need to discuss and resolve the central issue, or only some of it, requiring students to identify, and possibly fill in via outside researchthe missing information.
They can require students to examine multiple aspects of a problem, or just a circumscribed piece. They can require students to propose a solution for the case or simply to identify the parameters of the problem. Finding or creating cases It is possible to write your own case studies, although it is not a simple task.
The material for a case study can be drawn from your own professional experiences e. It is also possible to find published cases from books and on-line case study collections. Whatever the source, an effective case study is one that, according to Davis If it is a large lecture course, for example, you might use a case study to illustrate and enrich the lecture material.
An instructor lecturing on principles of marketing, for example, might use the case of a particular company or product to explore marketing issues and dilemmas in a real-life context.
Also in a large class you might consider breaking the class into small groups or pairs to discuss a relevant case. If your class is a smaller, discussion-format course, you will be able to use more detailed and complex cases, to explore the perspectives introduced in the case in greater depth, and perhaps integrate other instructional strategies, such as role playing or debate.
Regardless of the format in which you employ case studies, it is important that you, as the instructor, know all the issues involved in the case, prepare questions and prompts in advance, and anticipate where students might run into problems.
Finally, consider who your students are and how you might productively draw on their backgrounds, experiences, personalities, etc. While there are many variations in how case studies can be used, these six steps provide a general framework for how to lead a case-based discussion: Give students ample time to read and think about the case.
If the case is long, assign it as homework with a set of questions for students to consider e. What are some possible courses of action?
What are the potential obstacles? Introduce the case briefly and provide some guidelines for how to approach it. Clarify how you want students to think about the case e. What would you recommend? Second, evaluate the decisions each character made and their implications.
Finally, explain what you would have done differently and why. If you would like students to disregard or focus on certain information, specify that as well e. Breaking the full class into smaller groups gives individual students more opportunities for participation and interaction.
However, small groups can drift off track if you do not provide structure. Thus, it is a good idea to make the task of the group very concrete and clear e.
You may also want to designate roles within each group: Alternatively, group members could be assigned broad perspectives e.Case Study of Successful, Complex IT Projects In addition to these project-related factors, establishing an IT project within an organization will cause uncertainty and changes in the organizational environment.
The case study method of teaching applied to college science teaching, from The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science.
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Case Studies in Health Information Management, 3rd Edition Professional Review Guide for the CCA Examination, Edition, 1st Edition Essentials of Health Information Management: Principles and Practices, 4th Edition.
Buy real-world case studies, written by professors at HBS and other renowned business programs. Case studies are stories. They present realistic, complex, and contextually rich situations and often involve a dilemma, conflict, or problem that one or more of the characters in the case must negotiate.
A good case study, according to Professor Paul Lawrence is: “the vehicle by which a chunk of.