Not really that close.
Centered on the eighteenth century, The Enlightenment was a movement in philosophy, and fundamentally within western philosophy.
The Enlightenment was a dramatic shift in philosophy toward a worldview based on reason and manifested as the right to question received authority and to re-define the moral and political realms of philosophy historically relegated only to religion. The result was much of the cherished progress of the modern word - from human rights to modern liberal democracies, markets, and civil liberties.
Though inspired by the intellectual discourse of the Renaissance, and it by that of the ancient classical world, The Enlightenment was not confined to the western world and included a vibrant exchange of ideas between eastern and western philosophy.
Every individual has a philosophy, even when they have never explicitly studied philosophy they develop one which tends to be a mix of ideas from surrounding culture.
The Renaissance was a rediscovery of classical philosophical ideas re-applied and sparked explosive progress in natural philosophy what would today be science and consequently the material well being of all people.
In epistemology, Renaissance thinkers knew that science could determine things about the truth that religions or ancient authority figures like Aristotle and Galen could not. In aesthetics, Renaissance artists realized the practical value of beauty and celebrating a good existence objectively in high art, from courageous soldiers to idealized human forms.
Where the Renaissance was the rebirth of reason, The Enlightenment was its maturity. Many societal and cultural changes occurred during The Enlightenment, some as a result of the philosophical changes, others precipitating them. Private societies of inquiries into natural philosophy, such as the Royal Society of London, formed.
Coffee houses became fashionable meeting places of intellectuals to debate and discuss popular or revolutionary ideas. Descartes proposed rejecting any ideas that can be doubted, and then identifying them again experimentally or deductively. The German Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz continued on the trend initiated by Descartes to always question received authority.
Leibniz wrote extensively on politics and ethics, arguing that if God was a perfect being, then naturally a perfect being would create the most perfect of all available worlds.
He would not make the second most perfect world any more than the th most perfect. If he could have created any possible world, he would only create the best world, thus the created world is the best world possible.
He argued that human nature was characterized not by violence and hatred, but by reason and tolerance, and that human nature did in fact allow men to be selfish and yet act in common self interested harmony. Locke was the first philosopher to develop a cohesive theory of identify and self, resting on continuity over time, it reconciled the continuation of identify with the dynamic nature of all things that philosophers had debated since Ancient times.
While individual components in a person or in a river may change every moment, the vast majority are identical from one moment to the next, thus the essence of the identity is retained. Within individuals, the continuity of consciousness represented the consistent self through time, to Locke, and subsequent enlightenment thinkers, the self was a real, definable, defensible entity.
Throughout the Medieval age the focus in Christianity, the dominant European religion, was on the virtue of poverty and suffering.The argument centered around Bentham's interest in the education of the poor and the Church's belief that the poor needed religion more than education.
(David Hume, Adam Smith, Jeremy Mill () and Jeremy Bentham () are readily identified with utilitarianism, while Plato, Aris- totle, Immanual Kant (), and.
Foundations For Freedom. Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, Buddha, Hume, Locke, Kant, Hegel and others are mentioned in current articles, books and discussions on philosophy.
of other people onto strangers and this makes it easy to justify acts of unprovoked and unwarranted aggression against them.3 In contrast, most other animals survive by. Thomas Jefferson would never have said anything half so witless.
There is no virtue in dissent per se.
Immanual Kant # posted by Roger Fraley @ AM 0 comments. Thursday, April 27, Cavuto Clobbers Durbin. When the main thrust of your argument is ad hominem invective, you're a bad person. And the guys on the left who early on.
A second area of psychological issues involved emotion and reason which 18 th century British philosopher David Hume sensed motivational in involved our moral actions. Philosophers, like Immanual Kant, that followed Hume’s time opposed theories concerning emotions and instead argued that they needed to be “acts of reason”.
Francis Bacon was a famous English philosopher and David Hume was the famous Scottish skeptic. Voltaire and Descartes are some of the famous French philosophers that had an impact upon the philosophy of deism.
The deism and rationalism began to eat away at Christianity like a cancer. Immanual Kant () wrote in that. For Kant.
just as apprehensions of the world in the thinking process are controlled by the universal categories of causality. but on universal principles that determine what constitutes a moral action within particular situations.A GUIDE TO THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF RELIGION judgements.