Marx's view of class originated from a series of personal interests relating to social alienation and human struggle, whereby the formation of class structure relates to acute historical consciousness.
Sigmund Freud[ edit ] The basic assumption of Freud's psychoanalytic view of the person is an energy system in which all mental processes are considered to be energy flows, which can flow freely or can get sidetracked or dammed up. Freud argues that the goal of all behaviour is the reduction of tension through the release of energy, which produces pleasure.
People function in accordance with hedonistic principles, seeking unbridled gratification of all desires. The endless pursuit of pleasure is, however, in conflict with society and civilization, as the uncontrolled satisfaction of pleasure is not accepted.
In Freud's view, humans are primarily driven by sexual and aggressive instincts. Sexual and aggressive energy prevented from expression in a more direct way are converted to cultural activities such as art and science.
Energy used for cultural purposes is, however, no longer available to sexual purposes and Freud concludes that the price of civilization is misery, the forfeit of happiness and a sense of guilt.
The relation between the person and society is controlled by primitive urges buried deep within ourselves, forming the basis of the hidden self. Freud argues that much of our psychic energy is devoted either to finding acceptable expressions of unconscious ideas or to keeping them unconscious.
Freud constructed his concept of the unconscious from analysis of slips of the tonguedreamsneurosespsychosesworks of art and rituals.
The largest portion of the mind is formed by the unconscious system and only a very small part by the conscious. The preconscious-system stands like a partition screen between the unconscious-system and consciousness.
Psychoanalytic theory is fundamentally a motivational theory of human behaviour and Freud claimed that "psychoanalysis aims at and achieves nothing more than the discovery of the unconscious in mental life".
This tendency is present in all organisms and can be defined as the motivation present in every life form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent.
Humanistic psychology is based on an optimistic view of human nature and the direction of people's movement is basically towards self-actualisation.
Some might criticise Rogers as being a naive optimist and point out the violent history of humanity. Rogers defends his view by referring to the fact that his theory is based on more than twenty-five years of experience in psychotherapy.
Individuals also have experiences of which they are unaware and the phenomenological field contains both conscious and unconscious perceptions. The concept of the self is, according to Rogers, however, primarily conscious. The most important determinants of behaviour are those that are conscious or are capable of becoming conscious.
Rogers argues that a notion of the self that includes a reference to the unconscious as with Freud cannot be studied objectively as it can not be directly known. The real self is created through the actualising tendency, it is the self that one can become. The demands of society, however, do not always support the actualising tendency and we are forced to live under conditions that are out of step with our tendencies.
The ideal self is the ideal created through the demands of society.
Rogers does not see it as something to strive for that is the real self but an ideal imposed on us we can never fully reach. For an individual to be truly happy and for self-actualisation to be realised, the public and hidden selves must be as similar as possible.
Rogers believed that when all aspects of a person's life, surroundings and thoughts are in harmony, thus the ideal state of congruence is reached. Jung viewed human personality from a broad perspective, so his system for understanding individual differences and similarities is complex.
Jung saw the human psyche as containing everything necessary to grow, adapt, and heal itself. He believed that people were capable of directing their own personality development and benefiting from both positive and negative life experiences Quenk In his studies, Carl Jung divided the psyche into the unconscious and the conscious minds.
Freud viewed the unconscious as containing the Id, the Superego and the Egowhereas Jung developed a different model. He described the unconscious as consisting of two major components: Jung looked at all behavior including neurotic symptoms as ways of stimulating an individual's growth toward completion.
He was interested in personality development as it occurred over the life span and saw it as an ongoing process. Personal Unconscious[ edit ] The Personal Unconscious, as conceived by Jung, encompasses the totality of what Freud recognized as "the unconscious" and corresponds to what most of us intuitively associate with the term "unconscious mind.Besides the narrator’s ironic self-contradiction or unwitting irony, Poe’s other most pervasive technique in the story is symbolism.
Symbols of perception include the narrator’s particular. search for "text" in self post contents self:yes (or self:no) include (or exclude) self posts nsfw:yes (or nsfw:no) include (or exclude) results marked as NSFW. e.g. subreddit:aww site:regardbouddhiste.com dog.
see . A summary of Book One: Chapter I in George Orwell's Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
An analysis An analysis of a hidden self contradiction of the yoa of Jean Baptiste Racine's "Phaedra," focusing on the character an analysis of cyrano de bergerac Phaedra's role in the an analysis of irony in phaedra by jean racine play.
Hidden personality is the part of the personality that is determined by unconscious processes.
Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers theorised that people have a 'hidden' personality of which they are not aware. Marxian class theory asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is .