Return to Safari Planning The Deserts of Africa -- Unimaginable Beauty Africa - the second largest continent in the world is also home to the largest desert in the world - the Sahara. In fact there are three deserts on the continent - The Sahara, the Namib and the Kalahari.
History[ edit ] The pyramids at Giza: Modern humans, homo sapiens, are believed to have originated in East Africa somewhere between Ethiopia and Kenya.
North Africa, on the other hand, has a recorded history dating back several millennia with bountiful structures, writings, arts, and crafts which have survived to this day. The ancient Pharonic civilization centred in modern-day Egypt is recognized as the longest-lasting and one of the, if not the, greatest ancient civilizations lasting from around BC until the invasion of Persians in BC.
Today, their legacy lives with many of their cities well-preserved and now popular tourist attractions along with a few museums hosting their artefacts. Modern Jews believe themselves to be descendants of slaves in ancient Egypt and much of the Hebrew Bible, religious texts for both Jews and Christians, was based and written in the region.
The other great early civilizations on the continent were the Nubians in northern Sudan and southern Egypt, who were very similar to the ancient Egyptians, leaving behind the city of Meroe in Sudan, and the Aksumite Empire from the 4th century BC until the 7st century AD in modern-day Ethiopia and eastern Sudan which was important to trade between India and the Roman Empire and an important centre of early Christianity.
Roman theatre at Leptis MagnaLibya Meanwhile, the s BC brought about the first and less famous invasions of Europeans to the continent. Meanwhile, the Romans conquered much of the Mediterranean coastline to the west, leaving behind such ruins as Carthage and Leptis Magna. In the west, Berbers would intermarry with the Arab invaders to become the Moorish population that would later invade the Iberian peninsula.
When Damascus was invaded in the early eighth century, the Islamic religious and political centre of the Mediterranean shifted Africa is a second largest continent Kairouan in Tunisia.
Their progress was limited only by the dense forests of West and Central Africa and to coastal areas in the East. The last region to come under Muslim influence was that of Nubia moden-day northern Sudan in the 14th century.
Old Mogadishu which reached its height as a commercial center in the 13th century. The 7th-9th centuries would be a time contributing significant changes to the history of sub-Saharan Africa. As many of these kingdoms converted to Islam, trans-Saharan trade grew as salt and gold were transported to Libya and Egypt in large caravans—a trade made possible by the introduction of camels from Arabia in the 10th century and would support much of the area from northern Nigeria west to Mali and Mauritania until the 19th century.
During the 13thth centuries, many of these early kingdoms were replaced with new empires, chief among them the Mali in Mali, Guinea, and Senegal and later Soghay in Mali, Burkina Faso, and Niger and a plethora of small, single-tribe kingdoms and city-states sprouted.
Many of Mali's popular tourist destinations, including TimbuktuDjenneand Gaorose to prominence during this period as they became centers of trade and Islamic scholarship during this period. The Hausa tribes in northern Nigeria began organizing in walled city states, of which remnants remain in Kano.
Meanwhile, East Africa saw a rise of Islamic influence and prosperity from Indian Ocean trade as ships from Arabia, Persia, India, and as far as Southeast Asia dropped anchor in major ports from Somalia down to Mozambique bringing spices and in return for slaves and ivory.
Between the 7th and 19th centuries, over 18 million people were taken from the region as part of the Arab slave trade—roughly twice as many as the Atlantic slave trade would take to the Americas.
Today, that influence remains in the culture and gastronomy of many places, most notably on the Indian Ocean islands such as Zanzibar, Comoros, the Seychelles, and Mauritius. Ruins at Great Zimbabwe Southern Africa remained undeveloped, with primarily nomadic hunter-gatherers such as the San people and some small kingdoms.
The Kingdom of Zimbabwe namesake of today's state was one of the most notable, constructing the greatest stone structures in pre-colonial sub-Saharan Africa at their capital Great Zimbabwe. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe in modern eastern South Africa also left smaller stone ruins.
Both profited from the trade in gold and ivory with Arab and Asian merchants. While a few Genoese, Castillian, and French explorers managed to reach parts of West Africa in the Middle Ages, European exploration of the continent truly began when Prince "Henry the Navigator" set out to acquire African territory for Portugal in the midth century.
The Portuguese reached Cape Verde inand byhad charted the course to and began trade with the entire Guinea coast modern Guinea-Bissau to Nigeria.
The Portuguese set up numerous forts along the African coast and established a highly profitable trade, initially held good relations with locals, and remained the dominant European power in the region until the 17th century while Spain, France, and Britain began exploring the Americas.
Slaving castle in Cape CoastGhana The lucrative trade and large amounts of gold obtained by the Portuguese lured other nations to the continent.
As the demands for labour in the Americas grew, Portuguese sailors began taking shiploads of slaves to the Americas, beginning the Atlantic slave trade. In the early 17th century, the Dutch fought the Portuguese to win control of most of their West and Central African ports, some like Luanda would be retaken later, and established a couple dozen forts of their own, notably at Goree Island in Dakar and at the Cape of Good Hope—a port they hoped to use for trade routes to East Asia and which has become modern-day Cape Town.
Inthe French built their first fort on Madagascar which they claimed in and inthe British built their first fort on the continent in the Gambia.
Swedish merchants established a fort on Cape Coastwhich later was overpowered by the Danish nearby at modern Accra. In the 19th century, European attention shifted from establishing coastal ports for trade to fighting one another to colonize the continent and explore its uncharted interior.Africa - the second largest continent in the world is also home to the largest desert in the world - the Sahara.
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Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia at about million KM. Countries by Population Density - Most Densely Populated Nations The population density is calculated from the country's population and the land surface area . Of the seven continents in the world, Asia ranks as the largest in terms of both size and population.
Asia occupies an area of 17,, square miles and is home to more than 4 billion people. The second-largest continent in size is Africa, followed by North America, South America, Antarctica. Africa Has S***loads Of Resources — Trump May Have Provoked The World’s 2nd Largest Continent To Detach Itself From The Old World.