Culture can be viewed as the customs, arts and social interactions of a particular nation, people, or other social group. It can also be defined as an appreciation of the arts and human intellectual achievement. In both views of culture, examples can provide a good way to get a quick understanding of culture.
You are encouraged to make free use of this publication. In some of the earliest scholarly writing on the subject, this argument emerged as a presumption of enslaved African cultural vacuity.
Much of the earliest historical record of slavery makes clear the presumptions of planters who saw in enslaved Africans so many tabula rasa whose naturally mimetic personalities made them specially suited to receive the bounty of presumably superior European ways and manners.
These superstitions were all firmly rooted in Anglo-Saxon folklore.
In it, Herskovits argued for the substantial, significant, and continued influence of Africa in the histories, lives and cultures of blacks throughout the Americas.
For example, Sterling Stuckey argued not only that African cultural and religious elements persisted in the United States, but also that the realm of ritual and belief constituted the cultural center around which African Americans formed themselves into a people.
In this sense, African religion was the source of African American identity. Walter Rucker, writing in The River Flows Onargues that a widespread set of African-derived beliefs in spiritual forces and ideas about death, the afterlife, and transmigration proved crucial in the development of slave resistance and revolt in the United States.
Notwithstanding these recent developments, presumptions of African cultural loss in the face of American slavery continue to play a large role in debates about early African American culture, making clear the difficulties, not only historical, but also historiographical, of claiming a space for Africa in the early religious development of the United States.
Whatever we might say of African religious systems, we know that they were very much in flux between the fifteenth and the eighteenth centuries due to the dislocations of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and also to the mere passage of time and circumstance.
Evidence of new and dynamic religious and ritual configurations is evident throughout the continent in this period. One thinks, for example, of Dona Beatriz, the Kongolese prophetess who, after undergoing a transformative spiritual experience in the early eighteenth century, revealed a revised Christian theology that challenged the nativity and nationality of Christ and derided the Catholic Church for its racism.
In this way, the Atlantic slaving zone was a highly contested and contingent space where all sorts of systems—political, economic and certainly religious—were ever changing. To be sure, slaves did not merely replicate Africa in the Americas; but neither should we expect them to have done so.
Scholars who argue for the centrality of Africa in the subsequent development of African American cultures are likely representing an ideological, rather than a historical position.
I have suggested in another context the need to change the terms of a debate that has become fraught in several ways. Drawing on the work of David Scott, I have expressed concern that much of this debate has been verificationist in its orientations. On both sides of the debate, the central questions have been whether or not and to what extent African American cultures are authentically African; and whether or not and to what extent black people in the United States have retained one might say, performed an authentic memory of their past.
Or, more to the point, what are the limits of authenticity? Scholars have typically defined traditional African religion too narrowly. From the vastness of African religious beliefs and practices, a smaller set of well-known and often repeated tropes describe what is african about African religions, leaving whole fields of religious belief and practice beyond the pale.
Mbiti describes traditional African religion this way: In traditional religions there are no creeds to be recited; instead the creeds are written in the heart of the individual…. There are no sacred scriptures. There is no conversion from one traditional religion to another. A person has to be born in a particular society in order to assimilate the religious system….
African religions have neither founders nor reformers. Without founders or reformers, African religious practices are as they always have been.
Interestingly, Mbiti depicts religion as both a total institution, evident in all aspects of life, as well as a fiercely fugitive idea, being lodged in no one place at all—certainly not in officially sanctioned scriptures or liturgies.The academic culture is totally different for Malaysia and Australia.
In Malaysia education, the teaching styles is more teacher-centered where teachers will be giving exactly all the information to students and students are not expected for give respond to teacher’s questions. Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, encompassing language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts.
The Center for Advance Research on Language. Traditional African Music Brothers and sisters, the white man has brainwashed us black people to fasten our worship of Egyptian gods and the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system.
During the reign of Tutank-hamen (who was the son of a Nubian woman) colonization was especially bitter. Egyptian-style temples were built in Kush.
Furthermore, the article is framed around the epistemological assumptions that academic writing challenges of students in universities of technology are consequences of students’ linguistic and general literacy backgrounds, their attitudes towards academic writing and South African universities’ privileging of middle-class literacy practices.
Communicating Across Cultures What is a common communication style for Americans in the United States? Linear: Americans tend to communicate points in a . Key words: Culture, Identity, language, Academic writing.
1. Introduction In recent years, the separating of cultural, disciplinary and national barriers, especially in the context of academic and scientific writing has increased because of the globalization phenomenon.