I'm liking your answer but still it's not clear for me about the technical difference. For instance, what makes different modal-based from harmony-based? Terry has a traditional western music composition background including a MA in composition from UC Berkeley as well as becoming a professor of music at Mills College.
There are many ways to prepare for any holiday, but a good start might be to look seriously at how eighteenth-century people prepared spiritually to celebrate Christmas. The Christmas season is foreshadowed by the four-week season of Advent. Advent is the beginning of the Christian liturgical year and is considered to be a separate season from Christmas.
For most of Virginias devout Anglicans, the season of Advent was a penitential time of reflection, anticipation, and expectation for the coming of Christ. This spiritual preparation was reflected most clearly in the liturgy and prayers of the church during Advent.
The daily and Sunday readings from the Book of Common Prayer are highlighted by the two great heralds of Christ-- the prophet Isaiah and John the Baptist. Fasting, the consumption of only one full meal often meatless during the day, was recommended as another form of self-examination in preparation for Christmas.
The Advent season emphasized the timeless dialogue between darkness and light, evil and good. Perhaps at a time of the year when daylight is at an ebb, the joy of the expectation of the holiday became even greater for people of the past.
Philip Fithians keen observation of December 18,strongly indicated a season of expectation: When it grew to dark to dance. Were Christmas decorations a common sight in churches and homes? Although today residents in the Historic Area spend countless hours creating those beautiful natural decorations, greatly admired and copied far and wide, they are an inaccurate re- creation of eighteenth-century customs and materials.
Citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, and limes would never have been wasted on any form of decoration. A pineapple was considered a precious commodity in the eighteenth century and would not have been used as a door or mantel centerpiece.
What was common, however, was the "sticking of the Church" with green boughs on Christmas Eve.
Garlands of holly, ivy, mountain laurel, and mistletoe were hung from the church roof, the walls, and the church pillars and galleries. The pews and the pulpit, and sometimes the altar, were bedecked with garlands. This scene is described by Peter Kalm, a Swede who visited Philadelphia in On Christmas Day he wrote: Nowhere was Christmas Day celebrated with more solemnity than in the Roman Church.
Three sermons were preached there, and that which contributed most to the splendor of the ceremony was the beautiful music heard to-day. Pews and altar were decorated with branches of mountain laurel, whose leaves are green in winter time and resemble the cherry laurel.
Lavender, rose petals, and pungent herbs such as rosemary and bay were scattered throughout the churches, providing a pleasant holiday scent. Scented flowers and herbs were chosen partially because they were aromatic and thus were considered an alternative form of incense.
The Reverend George Herbert, an Anglican clergyman from Maryland, urged "that the church be swept, and kept clean without dust, or cobwebs, and at great festivals strewed, and stuck with boughs, and perfumed with incense.
How long was the Christmas season? This cycle was and still is a commemoration of the infancy narratives found in the Gospels of Saint Luke and Saint Matthew.
Four major events involving Jesus, Mary, and Joseph are commemorated in the forty-day cycle. The Nativity of Jesus January 1: The Purification of the Virgin Forty Days after Christmas Some of the most sacred holy days are observed within the octave of Christmas.
The octave week festival ended with the Feast of the Circumcision on January 1. It cannot be emphasized enough that amid the joy of the season, the holy days of Saint Stephen and the Holy Innocents were a solemn reminder of the darker side of humanity. The observance of the first four sacred holy days is reflected in Fithians diary entry of December 29, At Dinner we had the Company of Dr.Women in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries were challenged with expressing themselves in a patriarchal system that .
If you, like me, struggle with what '17th century' means as far as what the years actually were, 17th century: s; 18th century: s. LIFE FOR WOMEN IN THE 18TH CENTURY. In the 18th century pale skin was fashionable.
So were dark eyebrows. Women also used rouge abundantly. Perfume was also common. Women in the 16th Century. Women in the 19th Century. Women in the 20th Century. Life in the 18th Century. A history of women's rights. The key aspects of the 18th century cosmetic look were a complexion somewhere between white There were two main cosmetics worn by most women “Cosmetic Differences: The Changing Faces of England and France.” Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture 34 Festa, Lynn.
“Personal Effects: Wigs and Possessive . The 18th century lasted from January 1, to December 31, in the Gregorian calendar.
During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the American and French revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in regardbouddhiste.comies: 17th century, 18th century, 19th century.
Women in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries were challenged with expressing themselves in a patriarchal system that generally refused to grant merit to women's views.